Wednesday, May 15, 2013

what i learned about black rhinos

                                  what i learned about black rhinos   

   he black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) is the most well known of the five living rhinoceros species, with its aggressive reputation and highly publicised international conservation drive. Black rhinoceros are in fact grey in colour and are distinguished from the other African species (which is also grey) the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), by its pointed, prehensile upper lip; white rhinoceros have square lips (2). Both African rhinoceros species possess two horns, made from clumped fibres rather than bone, and the taller front horn may be 60 centimetres or longer

 

KingdomAnimalia
PhylumChordata
ClassMammalia
OrderPerissodactyla
FamilyRhinocerotidae
GenusDiceros

                            Once found throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa with the exception of the Congo Basin and other equatorial forest areas of West Africa (4). The recent decimation of the black rhinoceros has restricted the range to fragmented populations, predominately existing in reserves in Kenya, Tanzania, Namibia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Cameroon, Malawi and Swaziland (4). Four subspecies are recognised in different areas of the species range: the southwestern (Diceros bicornis bicornis), western (D. b. longipes), eastern (D. b. michaeli) and south-central black rhinoceros (D. b. minor) respectively                            

                   


Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)

Black rhinoceros, anterior view
Black rhinoceros, anterior view
IUCN Red List species status – Critically Endangered CRITICALLY
ENDANGERED

Top facts

  • The black rhino has two horns which are made of keratin
  • In spite of its name, the black rhino is actually grey
Learn more in our fact file below
  • Young eastern black rhinoceros © Philip Perry / www.flpa-images.co.uk1 / 61
  • Young eastern black rhinoceros feeding © Philip Perry / www.flpa-images.co.uk2 / 61
  • Eastern black rhinoceros, four years old © Philip Perry / www.flpa-images.co.uk3 / 61
  • Adult and young eastern black rhinoceros drinking © Martin B Withers / www.flpa-images.co.uk4 / 61
  • Eastern black rhinoceros with red-billed oxpeckers © Philip Perry / www.flpa-images.co.uk5 / 61
  • Eastern black rhinoceros sleeping © Winfried Wisniewski / www.flpa-images.co.uk6 / 61
  • Eastern black rhinoceros feeding on a thorn bush © Wendy Dennis / www.flpa-images.co.uk7 / 61
  • Eastern black rhinoceros killed by poachers © Leo Batten / www.flpa-images.co.uk8 / 61
  • Young south central black rhinoceros, lacking ear due to inbreeding © Chris & Tilde Stuart / www.flpa-images.co.uk9 / 61
  • South central black rhinoceros showing prehensile lip © Wendy Dennis / www.flpa-images.co.uk10 / 61
  • Southwestern black rhinoceros male charging © Andrew Forsyth / www.flpa-images.co.uk11 / 61
  • Three month old black rhinoceros calf © Steve Turner / gettyimages.com12 / 61
  • Young black rhinoceros © Mark Newman / www.flpa-images.co.uk13 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros female with calf © Mike Powles / gettyimages.com14 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros pair with calf © Mike Wilkes / naturepl.com15 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros nursing calf © Aquavision TV Productions / Wildlife Filmmakers16 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros calf running © Mark Newman / www.flpa-images.co.uk17 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros calf playing with a stick, next to adult © Mark Newman / www.flpa-images.co.uk18 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros adult with juvenile © Anup Shah / naturepl.com19 / 61
  • Immature black rhinoceros wallowing in mud © David Lawson / WWF-UK20 / 61
  • Close up of a black rhinoceros foot © Suzi Eszterhas / naturepl.com21 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros tail © Terry Whittaker / www.flpa-images.co.uk22 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros © Steve Turner / gettyimages.com23 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros, head detail © Andy Rouse / naturepl.com24 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros revealing prehensile lip © Aquavision TV Productions / Wildlife Filmmakers25 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros, anterior view © Michael Hutchinson / naturepl.com26 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros  © Staffan Widstrand / naturepl.com27 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros resting © Sharon Heald / naturepl.com28 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros standing © Tony Heald / naturepl.com29 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros walking © Dominic Johnson / naturepl.com30 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros 'scraping' at dung site © Tony Heald / naturepl.com31 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros marking territory with urine © Mike Powles / gettyimages.com32 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros wading in river © Mark Payne-Gill / naturepl.com33 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros wallowing in mud © Bruce Davidson / naturepl.com34 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros mud bathing © Tony Heald / naturepl.com35 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros covered in mud © Bruce Davidson / naturepl.com36 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros dust bathing © Alain Pons / Biosphoto37 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros drinking © Tony Heald / naturepl.com38 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros revealing prehensile lip © Steve Turner / gettyimages.com39 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros browsing © Gerald Cubitt40 / 61
  • Close up of a black rhinoceros feeding © Tony Heald / naturepl.com41 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros feeding © Tony Heald / naturepl.com42 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros grazing © Peter Blackwell / naturepl.com43 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros charging © Tony Heald / naturepl.com44 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros charging © Tony Heald / naturepl.com45 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros charging lion © Aquavision TV Productions / Wildlife Filmmakers46 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros, flehmen response © Tony Heald / naturepl.com47 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros scent marking © Mary Ann McDonald / naturepl.com48 / 61
  • Female and male black rhinoceros fighting © Sharon Heald / naturepl.com49 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros mating © Ferrero-Labat / www.ardea.com50 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros mating © Yann Arthus-Bertrand / www.ardea.com51 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros in typical habitat © Steve Turner / gettyimages.com52 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros and calf in savannah habitat © Gerald Cubitt53 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros in typical habitat © Pete Oxford / naturepl.com54 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros in salt pan habitat © Tony Heald / naturepl.com55 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros in savannah habitat © Jose B. Ruiz / naturepl.com56 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros camera trap image © Margaret Kinnaird & Tim O'Brien / Smithsonian Wild57 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros camera trap image © Margaret Kinnaird & Tim O'Brien / Smithsonian Wild58 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros footprint © Chris & Tilde Stuart / www.flpa-images.co.uk59 / 61
  • Black rhinoceros guarded against poachers © Martin Harvey / www.photoshot.com60 / 61
  • Confiscated black rhinoceros' horns © Steve Turner / gettyimages.com61 / 61

Black rhinoceros fact file

Black rhinoceros description

KingdomAnimalia
PhylumChordata
ClassMammalia
OrderPerissodactyla
FamilyRhinocerotidae
GenusDiceros (1)
The black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) is the most well known of the five living rhinoceros species, with its aggressive reputation and highly publicised international conservation drive. Black rhinoceros are in fact grey in colour and are distinguished from the other African species (which is also grey) the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), by its pointed, prehensile upper lip; white rhinoceros have square lips (2). Both African rhinoceros species possess two horns, made from clumped fibres rather than bone, and the taller front horn may be 60 centimetres or longer (4).
French
Rhinocéros Noir.
Spanish
Rinoceronte Negro.
Size
Shoulder height: 1.4 - 1.8 m (2)
Length: 3 - 3.75 m (2)
Weight
800 - 1400 kg (2)
Top

Black rhinoceros biology

                                   

Black rhinoceros conservation

The population crash in the latter half of the 20th Century saw rhinoceros numbers plummet to a low of about 2,400 individuals (4). A variety of conservation approaches have been adopted, which have resulted in the stabilisation and partial recovery of populations in a number of countries. The most successful have involved the rigorous protection of rhinoceros in fenced sanctuaries, often in partnerships between the State and private sectors, or in intensely protected unfenced zones within larger areas (4). Dehorning has also been used in some countries to reduce the incentives to poach (4). In 1997, Yemen became a signatory of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), thus greatly reducing the demand for rhinoceros horn in the Middle East (7). By 2001, the continental black rhinoceros population had increased to 3,100, with populations in six of the eight range states increasing (4). Most individuals are conserved in heavily protected areas. The African Rhino Specialist Group of the World Conservation Union (IUCN) provides advice on the conservation of African rhinoceros, and has developed a detailed Action Plan, which provides extensive information and strategic direction for their conservation

                

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